Black Friday Sale! 40% OFF all books & plugins w/ code: FRIDAY22
Web Dev + WordPress + Security

2G Blacklist: Closing the Door on Malicious Attacks

[ 2G Blacklist ] Since posting the Ultimate htaccess Blacklist and then the Ultimate htaccess Blacklist 2, I find myself dealing with a new breed of malicious attacks. It is no longer useful to simply block nefarious user agents because they are frequently faked. Likewise, blocking individual IP addresses is generally a waste of time because the attacks are coming from a decentralized network of zombie machines. Watching my error and access logs very closely, I have observed the following trends in current attacks:

  • UAs are faked, typically using something generic like Mozilla/5.0
  • Each attack may involve hundreds of compromised IP addresses
  • Attacks generally target a large number of indexed (i.e., known) pages
  • Attacks often utilize query strings appended to variously named PHP files
  • The target URLs often include a secondary URL appended to a permalink
  • An increasing number of attacks employ random character strings to probe for holes
Update: Check out the new and improved 6G Firewall ยป

Yet despite the apparent complexity of such attacks, they tend to look remarkably similar. Specifically, notice the trends in the following examples of (nonexistent) target URLs, or “attack strings,” as I like to call them:

Note: in the following log entries, each instance of was replaced with This was required to prevent endless 404 errors from googlebot constantly crawling plain-text URLs.,m4//000____::um,qymuxH%3bmJ.5G+D//001F00Dox%7b1rF9DrEtxmn7unwp%7dqDr/

Now imagine hundreds or even thousands of requests for each of these different URL variations, each targeting a different preexisting resource. So, for example, using the first attack string from our list, such an attack would generate the following log entries:
[ + many more ]

Then, associated with each of these attacks is a unique (or semi-unique) IP address and (faked) user agent. Occasionally, such attacks will be executed from a single machine or even small network, in which case the user agent for each entry is generally generically randomized to avoid user-agent-based blacklists. More typically, however, the current state of spammer and cracker attacks employs a virtually “unblockable” array of user agents and IP addresses. In short, recent blacklisting methods relying on either of these variables are becoming increasingly less effective at stopping malicious attacks.

A Second Generation Blacklist

Given these observations, I have adopted a new strategy for dealing with this “new breed” of malicious attacks. Instead of targeting zillions of IP addresses and/or user agents for blacklisting, I am now identifying recurring attack string patterns and subsequently blocking them via the RedirectMatch directive of Apache’s powerful Alias module, mod_alias:

<IfModule mod_alias.c>
	RedirectMatch 403 attackstring1
	RedirectMatch 403 attackstring2
	RedirectMatch 403 attackstring3

By blocking key portions of the actual strings used in an attack, we are targeting an “unfakable” variable and preventing its use in any capacity. For example, referring to our previously given collection of attack strings, we are able block almost the entire collection with a single line of code:

RedirectMatch 403 http\:\/\/

Within the context of current server-exploitation techniques, that one line of code is an immensely powerful weapon for closing the door on malicious attacks. By focusing our blacklisting efforts directly on the attack vector itself, we employ a strategy that transcends the emergent complexity and variation inherent among intrinsic attack parameters. They can fake the user agents, the IP addresses, and just about everything else, but they can’t fake the (potential) targets of their attacks. Attack strings contain patterns that remain far more constant than previously targeted variables. And it gets even better..

Presenting the 2G Blacklist

For several months now, I have been harvesting key portions of malicious attack strings from my access logs and adding them to my new and improved “2G” blacklist. After the addition of each new string, I take as much time as possible to test the effectiveness of the block and ensure that it doesn’t interfere with normal functionality.

Although highly effective in its current state, the 2G Blacklist is a work in progress. As time goes on, this blacklisting method will certainly evolve to keep up with the rapidly changing arsenal of spammer and cracker attacks. To stay current with this and many other security measures, I encourage you to subscribe to Perishable Press.

As mentioned, this blacklist is designed for Apache servers equipped with the mod_alias module. You will need access to your site’s root htaccess file, into which you simply copy & paste the following code:

# 2G Blacklist from Perishable Press
<IfModule mod_alias.c>
	RedirectMatch 403 \.inc
	RedirectMatch 403 alt\=
	RedirectMatch 403 http\:\/\/
	RedirectMatch 403 menu\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 main\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 file\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 home\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 view\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 about\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 order\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 index2\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 errors\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 config\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 button\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 middle\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 threads\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 contact\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 display\.cgi
	RedirectMatch 403 display\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 include\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 register\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 db_connect\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 doeditconfig\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 send\_reminders\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 admin_db_utilities\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 admin\.webring\.docs\.php
	RedirectMatch 403 keds\.lpti
	RedirectMatch 403 r\.verees
	RedirectMatch 403 pictureofmyself
	RedirectMatch 403 remoteFile
	RedirectMatch 403 mybabyboy
	RedirectMatch 403 mariostar
	RedirectMatch 403 zaperyan
	RedirectMatch 403 babyboy
	RedirectMatch 403 aboutme
	RedirectMatch 403 xAou6
	RedirectMatch 403 qymux

A brief rundown of what we are doing here.. First, notice that the entire list is enclosed with a conditional <IfModule> container; this ensures that your site will not crash if for some reason mod_alias becomes unavailable. The list itself is elegantly simple. Each line targets a specific string of characters that, if matched in the URL, will return a server status 403 Forbidden HTTP error code. Nice, clean, and easy.

Wrap Up..

Although highly effective at stopping many attacks, this blacklist is merely another useful tool in the ongoing hellish battle against the evil forces of the nefarious online underworld. It is meant to complement existing methods, not replace them. Some frequently asked questions:

Is there still benefit from blocking individual IP addresses? As discussed elsewhere at Perishable Press, yes, crackers and attackers have their favorite locations and certain zombie machines are easier to manipulate than others.

Is there still benefit from blocking certain ranges of IPs? Yes, especially for coordinated attacks, blocking ranges of IP addresses often is the most expedient way of securing a site against threats.

Is there still benefit from blocking certain user agents? Yes, many spammers, scrapers and crackers have yet to spoof this aspect of their game — there are many well-known and well-hated user agents that should be banned.

It is in addition to these tools, then, that the 2G Blacklist provides another layer of security with solid defense against malicious attacks.

Jeff Starr
About the Author
Jeff Starr = Fullstack Developer. Book Author. Teacher. Human Being.
Digging Into WordPress: Take your WordPress skills to the next level.

22 responses to “2G Blacklist: Closing the Door on Malicious Attacks”

  1. Avatar photo
    Perishable 2008/03/04 4:59 pm

    Indeed! For your unabashed insolence, you are forthwith banished from the kingdom!! :)

  2. Love the blacklist perishable.. It’s nice to see somebody who keeps up with all this garbage that clutters up the logs!

  3. Avatar photo
    Perishable 2008/07/09 2:20 pm

    @HR Blog: incredible eye on my most popular posts. May I ask what tool you are using to identify them? Otherwise, yeah — I am heavy into the blacklist scene. Why? Because I hate spam. ;)

  4. @Perishable: It was actually a valid comment and not spam lol.. I am a regular visitor of your site and decided to start commenting and not just fly-by and never say a word. Since you asked what tool I used to identify popular posts.. I didn’t use any tool for that — Just went through my bookmarks I had on htaccess rules. – Cheers –

  5. Avatar photo
    Perishable 2008/07/23 3:04 pm

    Thanks for the response, Aaron. I hate to be so skeptical, but I get a lot of “targeted” comments. Of course, I am always grateful for sincere comments, and appreciate the fact that you find the content worthy of bookmarking! :)
    Kind regards,

  6. TechJammer 2008/09/06 5:15 am

    Congrats for a great web site! I visit this site on numerous occasions, used many of the web site security methods described to control spammers, and referred other users to this site also.

    I have to admit, the dark background was killing me until I read the post about the little sun at the right/bottom of the screen!

    Things are looking even better now!

  7. Avatar photo
    Jeff Starr 2008/09/06 3:53 pm

    Thanks, TechJammer, I am glad you find the site useful! Thanks also for referring people to the site — it is greatly appreciated :)

    Also, I am glad you discovered the high-contrast toggle link in the corner of the current theme, but be advised that the default design will be changing soon, and the new design also features a dark background. I am trying to increase the usability of the new design by increasing the size and contrast of the text such that an alternate “light” theme will no longer be necessary. But fear not! The new design will provide easy-access to this and all of the previous alternate themes.

  8. Avatar photo

    This mod breaks Joomla’s backend, gives js errors galore and prevents admin functions from working.

  9. Avatar photo
    Jeff Starr 2010/08/23 9:09 pm

    @Dana: This blacklist was replaced by the 3G and now the 4G Blacklist, which seems to be working well with Joomla.

  10. Thanks a lot for this post. I was under heavy attack from a bizzard spammer for a couple days before coming through with various plugin. But I do think mastering .htaccess is a key component for a wed admin toolkit. Thanks again.

Comments are closed for this post. Something to add? Let me know.
Perishable Press is operated by Jeff Starr, a professional web developer and book author with two decades of experience. Here you will find posts about web development, WordPress, security, and more »
Digging Into WordPress: Take your WordPress skills to the next level.
Upgraded iMac to Ventura. Disabled "unsend mail" feature and found some (now) hidden wallpaper settings. Overall smooth upgrade.
( $this ) is bloat. ($this) is better.
The Legend of Zelda: Tears of the Kingdom coming May 12, 2023. Absolutely pumped.
Favorite thing for breakfast is a tall glass of cold water. Hits the spot every time.
Fall is my favorite season :)
Still a few days left before “Unlimited” pro licenses are no longer available.
Getting back into it after a nice mini vacation. Time to ramp up and get busy.
Get news, updates, deals & tips via email.
Email kept private. Easy unsubscribe anytime.